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ScienceUkrainian scientists have brought a lot of results of fundamental and applied researches to the altar of scientific and technological advance of the whole world. These achievements of Ukrainian science have found a wide application in industry, agriculture and culture. Even in 1930s our scientists carried an artificial nuclear reaction of transformation of lithium nucleus into helium nucleus, built an accelerator of charged particles, received heavy water, created a tridimensional radiolocator of decimeter range. 

During the World War II there was a new highly efficient technology introduced into defense industry which allowed to weld under flux cases of tanks, artillery systems and aerial bombs. Ukrainian biologists and doctors made a great contribution into development of new medicines and treatment methods of wounded people.

5 years after a devastating war for the first time in continental Europe a small electronic computer was built in the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Later a theory of digital automatons was developed which became a basis for creation a number of generations of electronic computers. Academy’s scientists offered advanced technologies of permanent connection of metals and nonmetals in different conditions and mediums as well as technologies of electroslag hard-facing which laid grounds for a new industry — a special electrometallurgy — which in turn enables to manufacture ultra-hard materials, synthetic diamonds, powder metallurgical contact alloys and many other innovative products.

Important results have been achieved in the field of mathematics, mathematical physics, information technologies and biological cybernetics as well as in mechanics of rigid body and in mechanics of fluids. Ukrainian physics and astronomers have made a great contribution namely in theoretical physics, solid-state physics, low-temperature physics, physics of semiconductors, physical electronics, radio physics and astronomy. Here a number of physical phenomena were discovered which significantly broadened notions about a substance qualities in different conditions as well as about physical processes in the universe. They laid a basis for new technologies in electronics, holography and radio engineering. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine has become a world-famous material testing centre of electric welding, special electrometallurgy, ultra-hard materials and making tools of them.

An important page of Ukrainian scientific history are complex researches of space development, introduction of a technology of welding and metal cutting in open space, carrying our assembling and repair work, use of solar energy to for energy supply to spacecrafts, conducting a series of biological experiments on the orbit.

In the field of natural sciences significant results have been achieved in geophysics and hydrophysics, hydrogeology, geochemistry, physics of minerals and oceanology. Well-earned place is occupied by physicotechnical problems of energetics, researches in heat mass exchange, electrophysics, modeling of electrotechnical and energy systems, energy conservation, nontraditional and renewable energy sources.

There are also important achievements in researches of fundamental problems of catalysis, organic synthesis, chemistry of high-molecular compounds, chemistry of water, nanochemistry, coal fuel chemistry and other directions of the chemistry science.

Wide recognition of home and foreign scientists was won by fundamental researches in biology sciences: membrane biology, human and animal physiology, neurophysiology and biosensor science. There are active researches going on in theoretical and experimental oncology, radiation medicine, cryobiology and cryomedicine, molecular and cell biology, genetic engineering, microbiology and virology.

There are also a number of achievements in social and humanitarian sciences. Political and legal, economic and sociological institutions have made a great contribution in theoretical explanation and informational and analytical support of socio-political and social-economic changes, studies into modern transformations in society, development of a basis for investment, innovation, regional, ethnonational and humanitarian state policies. Multivolume works on ancient history of Ukraine, political history of 20th century and history of Ukrainian culture have been created. A number of new generation dictionaries have been published. The first national electronic lexicographical system has been created to meet the demands of sciences, education and publishing fields. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine played a significant role in overcoming consequences of the anthropogenic disaster at Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
Dmytro Chernenko

Thematic news

In Lviv will be "The Festival of Science 2010" 22.03.2010


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